Module 9

Reducing Extraneous Processing in Multimedia learning

Multimedia learning principles: modality, coherence, contiguity, & signaling

Goals and Outcomes

Outcomes

After completing this module, students will be able to:

  • describe how the modality principle in multimedia learning can increase working memory
  • describe the four-component instructional design model
  • explain work-out examples principle
  • describe guidelines for aiding in processing examples
  • apply segmenting principle, pre-training principle, and modality principle into their teaching practice
  • list a set of principles for providing instructional explanation for worked-out examples.

Selected Readings

Required

  • Mayer, R.E., & Moreno, R. (2010). Techniques that reduce extraneous cognitive load and manage intrinsic cognitive load during multimedia learning. In J. L. Plass, R. Moreno, & R. Brünken (Eds.), Cognitive Load Theory (pp. 131-152). New York: Cambridge.
    Download (PDF, 12 KB)
  • van Merriënboer, J. J., & Kester, L. (2014). The four-component instructional design model: Multimedia principles in environments for complex learning. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. (pp. 104-148). New York: Cambridge.
    (e.g. Chapter 5)

Recommended:

  • Low, R., & Sweller, J. (2014). The modality principle in multimedia learning. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. (pp. 227-246). New York: Cambridge.
    (e.g. Chapter 9)
  • Renkl, A. (2014). The worked examples principle in multimedia learning. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. (pp. 391-412). New York: Cambridge.
    (e.g. Chapter 16)

“To Do” List

Discussions

Manage Intrinsic Cognitive Load

According to Mayer and Moreno (2014), essential overload occurs when the material is complex, unfamiliar or presented too quickly. To manage intrinsic cognitive load there are three principles:

  1. Segmenting Principle: Break material into steps or segments so that learners are not overloaded by all the information at once.
  2. Pre-training Principle: Help learners acquire prerequisite knowledge by giving them the names, location and behavior of key components before the presentation.
  3. Modality Principle: Present animation with narration instead of text so that learners can use two processing systems and thus maximize their working memory stores.

Select one of your instructional unit that is complicated and the learning materials are difficult. To achieve the targeted instructional objectives, the learners are required to possess higher-level thinking and problem-solving skills. Please describe what you will do or redesign this unit to avoid essential overload by adopting the guiding principles listed above.

Make your initial posts before 11:59 p.m. U.S. EST/EDT on Day 5 of this module. After making your initial postings, review at least two of your classmates’ postings and reply to their threads.Complete your replies before 11:59 p.m. U.S. EST/EDT on the next Monday.

Discussion postings should always be thoughtful and courteous and include some references or direct evidence from the module’s content, readings, or assignments to support your statements. In order to ensure that postings are appropriate in length and substance, please limit your initial postings to 100 – 200 words and each of your responses to 25 – 50 words.

Assignments

Multimedia Product Critique Paper #2

Please read the Multimedia Product Critiques page for details about this assignment. 

Overview

Throughout this course, students will identify three multimedia products and compose a critique paper for each of them. This assignment is designed to sharpen your critical thinking in evaluating multimedia products.

Due Dates

  • Critique Paper #2: (Due: the 1st day on Module 10)
  • Critique Paper #3: (Due: the 1st day on Module 14)
Annotated Bibliographies for Module 9

Please read the Annotated Bibliographies for Module Reading page for details about this assignment. 

Outcomes

After completing this assignment, you will be able to:

  • describe how the modality principle in multimedia learning can increase working memory
  • describe the four-component instructional design model
  • explain work-out examples principle
  • describe guidelines for aiding in processing examples
  • apply segmenting principle, pre-training principle, and modality principle into their teaching practice
  • list a set of principles for providing instructional explanation for worked-out examples.

Instructions

  1. Read all assigned reading carefully and thoroughly.
  2. Summarize the most important ideas and questions for ALL journal articles or book chapters covered in the week (including the one you find).
  3. For EACH journal article or book chapter, the summary should be between 150 – 300 words in length. This is not a reaction paper or an excerpt, but rather your synthesis of the main ideas and related questions. View an synthesis example at the Template page.
  4. Compose all of your annotated bibliographies in MS Word and check for spelling/grammatical errors.
  5. Post your synthesis text onto a Weebly page as online text (not file attachment) and label the page appropriately.

Submitting and Posting 

  1. To submit your work, copy and paste your synthesis text onto the corresponding link under Submissions inside Moodle before 11:59 p.m. U.S. EST/EDT on the following Monday.

Grading
Grades on the synthesis will be based on the requirement listed in the Annotated Bibliographies for Module Reading page. Read it carefully to get a sense of the instructor’s specific expectations.